It was essentially urban civilization. In spite of many attempts at decipherments and claims, it is as yet undeciphered. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. Symbol of fish was used for the meal. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. It has evidence of having both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. A small pot was discovered at Chanhudaro which was probably an inkpot. They also invented the device of a cart to harness the labour force of the animals to the production of man’s utility. The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. Harappans used weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes. Various causes have been ascribed for its weakening and then decay: Increase in rainfall, earthquake, decrease in fertility of soil, floods, Aryan invasion, disease etc. In the field of religions many important features of Harappan religion were adopted in later Hinduism. Required fields are marked *. Mysterious Riddle of the Indus (Harappan) Script, From the last hundreds of years, archaeologists are working on translating and deciphering the Indus or Harappan script. Within the lower town there are some barrack like groups of single -roomed tenements at Mohenjodaro. The script on seals reflected the high literacy level of Harappan civilization. The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization.. Phases of Harappan Civilisation Harappan civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and 1900 BC. In Harappa the Granary was outside the Fort. No information about the people, their spoken language, in that region at that time. Seals were also used by different associations of merchants for stamping purposes and they were also worn around the neck or the arm. Despite the thousands of archaeological artefacts excavated from more than a thousand settlements, a wholesome perspective of the civilization still remains elusive. Religion The religion of the Indus people had some interesting aspects. In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. It represents lamps and might have been used by the traders travelling at night. A well laid drainage system kept the cities clean. But this theory is partly true. Saved by Rama R. 9. Thanks for appreciating Another favourite motive was tree pattern. The language of the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the script is read. Its floor is made of burnt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. Also known as Harappan script, it is a unique unknown system of writing. Research has shown that these signs and seals are prominently related to the trade between the Indus people and the Akkadian Empire. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. Mortimer Wheeler pointed out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans. Save my name, e-mail, and site URL in my browser for next time I post a comment. Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and is uniformly sturdy and well baked. It was only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. The Indus or Harappan script of the Indus valley civilization is one of the riddles yet to be solved. Relatively recent analyses of the order of the signs on the inscriptions have led several scholars to the view that the language is not of the Indo-European family, nor is… A seated figure of a male god carved on a small stone seal was also found. The Indus (or Harappan) people used a pictographic script. But there is very little evidence on this opinion. Harappans were inventors of linear system of measurement with a unit equal to one angula of the Arthasastra. More information... People also love these ideas He also finds close connection between the Brahmi and the Indus script. Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago. Harappan Script. The script was not alphabetical and had many signs between 375 and 400. It is located within the citadel and next to the Great Bath. Harappan Civilization (also Indus Valley civilization), an archaeological culture that flourished from the middle of the third millennium B.C. Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus. Exchange were regulated by a precise system of weights, usually made of a stone called chert with no marking. Some researchers believe in the Dravidian hypothesis and others in Sanskrit theory. The script was written from right to left and it comprises 400 signs. The Aryans were more skilled at warfare and were powerful than the Harappans. Copper rhino, copper chariot and copper elephant found at Daimabad. It was divided into 3 parts. Majority of these sculptures are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster. The weights proceeded in a series, first doubling from 1, 2, 4, 8 to 64 and then in decimal multiples of 16. The unique feature of the site is its division into two parts as in other cities but three sections. This is contrary to the currently held view that all alphabetic writing descended from Phoenician in the late second millennium BC. The script of the Harappan Civilization is called Indus or Harappan script. Approximately 3500 specimens of this Indus script have been found in stamp seals carved in stones, in pottery, in inscribed objects, in moulded terracotta tablets and faience amulets and occasionally on metal. This video explains about Seals and Script of Harappan Civilization. Other good examples of the skill in casting and bronze working are the little models of bullock carts and ikkas from Harappa and Chanhudaro. The same high authority goes farther and declares that the civilization of India is even superior to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. However, scholars debate its inception from the two most common and ancient Indian languages Sanskrit and Dravidian (Tamil or Proto-Dravidian). Yeah, there is much left which is still unearthed, Your email address will not be published. Indian linguistic scholars have interpreted Indus texts as the Sanskrit language. It is a daunting task. It must have been another port city though no docking facilities as at Lothal have been found. The civilization was beautifully constructed in 1500 km. Semitic languages like Phoenician and Arabic use the syllabic system. Mohenjodaro is the largest of all the Indus cities and has a population estimated to between 41,000 and 35,000. The Harappan script has still to be fully deciphered. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. Each seal contained a maximum of five symbols. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. Slightly over 400 basic signs have been identified as part of the Indus Script. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. Historians are of the view that the decline of the Indus Civilization was not the result of a single event; it was a slow decline and a result of combination of factors. The painted pottery is of red and black colours. In a few long seals the boustrophedon method – writing in the reverse direction in alternative lines – was adopted. Located at the centre of the citadel it is remarkable for beautiful brick work. In the citadel the most impressive buildings were the granaries which were store -houses. The number of signs is between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Geometrical patterns, circles, squares and triangles and figures of animals, birds, snakes or fish are frequent motifs found in Harappan pottery. the Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site, which brought to light the presence of this civilization. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. Yes I’ve planned to include some more information in a follow up post that I couldn’t cover in this post. Another well-known building was the Great Bath. It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the corners and in the longer sides. Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati River. Clay figures of the Mother Goddess as the symbol of fertility have been found- these were worshipped by the people. The Dravidian hypothesis suggests that “fish” word denotes “meen” which means some glittering or shiny object, so fish pictogram is interpreted for representing gods. The Harappans worshipped Pashupati Shiva in his actual form as well as in the representative form as Linga, worship of mother goddess, worship of trees, animals; serpents were all adopted by Hinduism. Indus Valley Civilization Cradle Of Civilization Alphabet Writing Script Writing Ancient Scripts Ancient Symbols Harappan Mohenjo Daro Awakening Quotes. Some 3500 specimens of this script survive in stamp seals carved in stone, in moulded terracotta and faience amulets, in fragments of pottery, and in a few other categories of inscribed objects. The symbol of moon denotes night or night travelling. The vast mounds at Harappa were first reported by Masson in 1826 and visited by Cunningham in 1853 and 1873. However, the Indus script and the underlying language has been, Indus script is a pictographic script that has many abstract signs and human and animal motifs in addition to a puzzling. Main types of seals are the square type with a carved animal and inscription and rectangular type with inscription only. A dictionary of the Indus script is available at Harappa, that compares the works of Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan. Evidence for the use of horse comes from a doubtful terracotta figurine of a horse. Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. These symbols are common in the region and are similar to the new symbols that are used nowadays. It was nearly rectangular with the longer axis running from north to south. Also known as Harappan script, it is a unique unknown system of writing. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. Script and Language. Many ancient scripts like Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan. They are a series of brick platforms forming the basis of two rows of six granaries each measuring 50 x 20 feet . Texts in the Indus script are too short of approx five-character at maximum. The lower denominations of weights were binary 7 and the higher denominations followed the decimal system. Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. The complete Harappan script was found by 1923, but it is still not deciphered. Harappa is known to be a 4700 years old city in the subcontinent which was discovered around the time 1920. The streets were all well planned and drains regularly drained out. A few bronze sculptures have also been discovered at Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Chanhudaro and Daimabad. Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). Fire altars indicating the probable existence of a fire cult have been found. The plain pottery is more common than the painted ware. Recent research at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai brings out that the signs in Indus script have similarity to spoken languages such as Sumerian from Mesopotamia and old Tamil from southern India. The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the later civilization. Therefore, it is better it is called as the Harappan civilization. The seal immediately brings to our mind the traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva. The Harappan Civilization was one of the oldest civilization in the Indian sub-continent known for its modern structures. in the northwestern part of the Hindustan Peninsula, in what is now Ipdia and Pakistan. No evidence about the culture and any extended community found. Four unique bronzes of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot each weighing 60 kgs from the recently excavated site of Daimabad have thrown further light on the bronze work of the Harappans. An attempt has been made by Natwar Jha a palaeographist and Vedic scholar who says that script is syllabic that is no vowels are written. Several sticks inscribed with measure marks have been discovered. It will be interesting to know the history, heritage and the deciphering attempts for the Indus or Harappan script. The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. In the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs area. Thus, there is no concrete information available to read the names of the Harappan kings (if any), gods, or even the common people. In the case of the Indus script, scholars have been toiling hard to interpret and translate it since decades. 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