Seward, Clint. 2, 215–238. [95], Seward published images of the results of his experiments, along with his method. Ball lightning is a mysterious phenomenon, that hasn`t been fully studied yet. English: Emission spectrum of a ball lightning and annotated emission peaks of silicon, iron, calcium, nitrogen and oxygen. The ball of fire reportedly divided into two segments, one exiting through a window by smashing it open, the other disappearing somewhere inside the church. Researchers have designed a metamaterial that is nearly twice as resistant to cracking in one direction versus the other—what they call a fracture diode. The spectrum that you would obtain in this case would be an integration of all the emissions that occurred during the whole discharge. His model is described as an aerosol model that explains all the observable properties and processes of ball lightning. ball lightning . Ball lightning (BL) has been observed with two slitless spectrographs at a distance of 0.9 km. Ball lightning.png 1,165 × 979; 4.36 MB. Wandering glow discharges are found to occur within certain industrial microwave ovens and continue to glow for several seconds after power is shut off. It has been described as moving up and down, sideways or in unpredictable trajectories, hovering and moving with or against the wind; attracted to,[42] unaffected by, or repelled from buildings, people, cars and other objects. "Ball Lightning Explanation Leading to Clean Energy." If the vortex's expansion is obstructed, and symmetry is broken, the vortex breaks into cyclical form. Glowing plasma balls have been created artificially by passing intense microwaves through air [1] or by underwater electrical discharges [2]. Its appearance has also been linked to power lines,[24][43] altitudes of 300 m (1,000 feet) and higher, and during thunderstorms[24] and calm weather. Several hypotheses have been advanced since the phenomenon was brought into the scientific realm by the English physician and electrical researcher William Snow Harris in 1843, and French Academy scientist François Arago in 1855. Read More », Electromagnetic fields rotate a plasma and produce conditions that resemble the region around a newly forming star. Scientists have long attempted to produce ball lightning in laboratory experiments. Matthew Francis has dubbed this the "dirt clod hypothesis", in which the spectrum of ball lightning shows that it shares chemistry with soil. Submariners in World War II gave the most frequent and consistent accounts of small ball-lightning in the confined submarine atmosphere. H. C. Wu proposed (2016) that ball lightning arises when a "relativistic electron bunch" forming at the tip of a lightning stroke excites "intense microwave radiation" under certain conditions. Around the ring, over and under pressure systems rotate the vortex around a circular axis in the cross section of the torus. . [24] Accounts also vary on their alleged danger to humans, from lethal to harmless. photons quasiparticle... is a collective excitation phenomena between white and black spectrum photons transition at microscopically, unperturbed in free space . Jennison, of the Electronics Laboratory at the University of Kent, described his own observation of ball lightning in an article published in Nature in 1969: I was seated near the front of the passenger cabin of an all-metal airliner (Eastern Airlines Flight EA 539) on a late night flight from New York to Washington. The soliton model of a ball lightning was further developed. A ball of lightning came into the barn through an opening and travelled along the top of a horizontal metal bar that held a litter cart, about 10 feet in the air. Electrical Phenomenon Created in Lab", "Production of Ball-Lightning-Like Luminous Balls by Electrical Discharges in Silicon", ftp://ftp.aip.org/epaps/phys_rev_lett/E-PRLTAO-98-047705/, "The dirty secret behind ball lightning is dirt", "Solid charged-core model of ball lightning", "Development of the maser-caviton ball lightning theory", "Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning", "Formation of bound states of electrons in spherically symmetric oscillations of plasma", "Pairing of charged particles in a quantum plasmoid", "Ball Lightning–Aerosol Electrochemical Power Source or A Cloud of Batteries", "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK, Air Defence Region, Executive Summary", Could some ball lightning observations be optical hallucinations caused by epileptic seizures, Ball lightning is all in the mind, say Austrian physicists, "Magnetically Induced Hallucinations Explain Ball Lightning, Say Physicists", "Ball Lightning: Bubbles of Electronic Plasma Oscillations", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ball_lightning&oldid=999880659, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Willy Ley discussed a sighting in Paris on 5 July 1852 "for which sworn statements were filed with the, On 30 April 1877 a ball of lightning entered the, On 22 November 1894 an unusually prolonged instance of natural ball-lightning occurred in, An early fictional reference to ball lightning appears in a children's book set in the 19th century by, Pilots in World War II (1939–1945) described an unusual phenomenon for which ball lightning has been suggested as an explanation. For instance, microwaves are able to pass through glass, which helps to explain why balls could be formed indoors. Matthew Francis - 1/22/2014, 9:30 AM Image (left corner) and spectrum of a serendipitous ball lightning event in … Crew members reported a persistent, sickening sulphur smell afterward. (At the very least, observations would differ substantially. Julio Rubinstein,[75] David Finkelstein, and James R. Powell proposed that ball lightning is a detached St. Elmo's fire (1964–1970). This is the only eye witness account of ball lightning forming, then staying in one area, then ending that the author has heard of.[96]. this build is unique because ball lightning is linked to both blast chain and high impact.We have to be very strategic with our play style. He crossed himself just as calmly as he had when the fiery ball had flown near us, and I felt that it was unseemly and not courageous to be frightened as I was. By this explosion the main top-mast was shattered into pieces and the main mast went down to the keel. It had a diameter of 5 m (16 ft) and covered a distance of about 15 m (49 ft) within those 1.64 s. Oscillations in the light intensity and in the oxygen and nitrogen emission at a frequency of 100 hertz, possibly caused by the electromagnetic field of the 50 Hz high-voltage power transmission line in the vicinity, were observed. Ohtsuki and Ofuruton[52][53] described producing "plasma fireballs" by microwave interference within an air-filled cylindrical cavity fed by a rectangular waveguide using a 2.45 GHz, 5 kW (maximum power) microwave oscillator. [87][88], The declassified Project Condign report concludes that buoyant charged plasma formations similar to ball lightning are formed by novel physical, electrical, and magnetic phenomena, and that these charged plasmas are capable of being transported at enormous speeds under the influence and balance of electrical charges in the atmosphere. Owing to the lack of reproducible data, the existence of ball lightning as a physical phenomenon remains unproven. [44], Ball lightning is often erroneously identified as St. Elmo's fire. He said that the balls sometimes split into smaller balls and may explode "like a cannon".[17]. [citation needed] St. Elmo's fire arises when a sharp conductor, such as a ship's mast, amplifies the atmospheric electric field to breakdown. PPPS- 2001 Pulsed Power Plasma Science Conference. Vol. A related group uses the generic name "Unconventional Plasmas". There are many historical reports of such “fireballs” injuring or even killing people and setting buildings alight, and they have sometimes been given supernatural explanations. Use of the American Physical Society websites and journals implies that the user has read and agrees to our Terms and Conditions and any applicable Subscription Agreement. [2], A 1753 report recounts lethal ball lightning when professor Georg Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia, constructed a kite-flying apparatus similar to Benjamin Franklin's proposal a year earlier. Ball lightning, a rare aerial phenomenon in the form of a luminous sphere that is generally several centimetres in diameter. [86], Oleg Meshcheryakov suggests that ball lightning is made of composite nano or submicrometer particles—each particle constituting a battery. The presumption of its existence has depended on reported public sightings, which have produced inconsistent findings. The door-frame of the room was split and the door was torn from its hinges. [23], A beautiful yet strange phenomenon was seen in this city on last Monday night. That is what Ping Yuan and co-workers from Northwest Normal University in Lanzhou, China, now report. In his book Thunder and Lightning,[18] translated into English in 1875, French science-writer Wilfrid de Fonvielle wrote that there had been about 150 reports of globular lightning: Globular lightning seems to be particularly attracted to metals; thus it will seek the railings of balconies, or else water or gas pipes etc, It has no peculiar tint of its own but will appear of any colour as the case may be ... at Coethen in the Duchy of Anhalt it appeared green. [71][72], The Handel Maser-Soliton theory of ball lightning hypothesizes that the energy source generating the ball lightning is a large (several cubic kilometers) atmospheric maser. Ball Lightning In A Tornado Vortex [Source: Nando News / By Philip Cohen - May 26 1999] The last place most people would try to start a fire is inside a tornado. “I think that this is a unique observation that is probably of ball lightning, or one type of ball lightning,” says lightning specialist Martin Uman of the University of Florida in Gainesville. At the head of the Hindu pantheon was Indra, while Norse mythology gave us Thor – all wielders of thunderbolts. Ball lightning vanishes thus by silent extinction when the available density of charged particles is too low, while it disappears with a loud and sometimes very violent explosion when this density is too high. Such observations might ultimately suggest how to create ball lightning artificially, says Uman, and Yuan agrees. They are separate and distinct phenomena.[45]. Ball lightning (BL) has been observed with two slitless spectrographs at a distance of 0.9 km. After the ball had passed through the whole church, and suddenly gone out through the door, I again looked at my grandfather. The simplest case corresponds to radial oscillations in a spherical plasma membrane. The observed data are consistent with vaporization of soil as well as with ball lightning's sensitivity to electric fields.[4][47]. There is at present no widely accepted explanation for ball lightning. The ball had left a red spot on Richmann's forehead, his shoes were blown open, and his clothing was singed. On 10 July 2011, during a powerful thunderstorm, a ball of light with a two-metre (6 ft 7 in) tail went through a window to the control room of local emergency services in. His latest book is How To Grow a Human (University of Chicago Press, 2019). The team also used their video data to plot the ball lightning’s intensity and apparent diameter as they varied in time, down to the millisecond time-scale. … The balls have been reported to disperse in many different ways, such as suddenly vanishing, gradually dissipating, being absorbed into an object, "popping," exploding loudly, or even exploding with force, which is sometimes reported as damaging. Several other hypotheses have been proposed to explain ball lightning: Great Thunderstorm of Widecombe-in-the-Moor, Direct measurements of natural ball lightning, This may be an incorrect translation of the word "blixtlokaliseringssystem" from the university article cited in the sources. Included is a report by a farmer of observing a ball lightning event forming in a kitchen and the effects it caused as it moved around the kitchen. Some accounts describe it as moving through solid masses of wood or metal without effect, while others describe it as destructive and melting or burning those substances. A crewman went out to retrieve the fallen body and was struck by a second ball, which knocked him back and left him with mild burns. But the researchers couldn’t confirm that, as there are no emission lines of neutral aluminum atoms within the spectral range of their instrument (wavelengths of 400–1000 nanometers). A ball lightning (BL) has been observed with two slit-less spectrographs at a distance of 0.9 km. Four people died and approximately 60 were injured when, during a severe storm, an 8-foot (2.4 m) ball of fire was described as striking and entering the church, nearly destroying it. [68], In this model ball lightning is assumed to have a solid, positively charged core. // J. Chen, C., Pakter, R., Seward, D. C. "Equilibrium and Stability Properties of Self-Organized Electron Spiral Toroids." To obtain a time resolved spectrum we need to add a horizontal slit to isolate just a segment of the lightning channel and then cause the film to move perpendicularly. They immediately lowered their topsails, but it came up so fast upon them, that, before they could raise the main tack, they observed the ball rise almost perpendicularly, and not above forty or fifty yards [35 or 45 m] from the main chains when it went off with an explosion, as great as if a hundred cannons had been discharged at the same time, leaving behind it a strong sulphurous smell. In front of, above and around the new Hall of Engineering of the School of Mines, balls of fire played tag for half an hour, to the wonder and amazement of all who saw the display. Ball lightning typically appears during thunderstorms as a glow, ranging from the size of a golf ball to several meters across, which floats in the air for between one second and tens of seconds. [26], Descriptions of ball lightning vary widely. Some scientific groups, including the Max Planck Institute, have reportedly produced a ball lightning-type effect by discharging a high-voltage capacitor in a tank of water. As the microwaves ionize the surrounding air, their associated pressure may then evacuate the resulting plasma to form a bubble that "stably traps the radiation". Ball lightning has different colors. The ball eventually fades as the radiation held within the bubble starts to decay and microwaves are discharged from the sphere. To get maximum damage, you must place mines near the enemy to get the aura benefit from high impact, and you also must only detonate once to ensure that you get the longest possible chain to maximize damage from blast chain. In its ball form, the spooky form of lightning is said to range in size from a golf ball through to several metres across. . One popular theory is that ball lightning is caused when lightning striking the ground vaporizes some of the silicate minerals in soil. 8, No. [91] Such fields, which are found within close distances to a point in which multiple lightning strikes have occurred over a few seconds, can directly cause the neurons in the visual cortex to fire, resulting in magnetophosphenes (magnetically induced visual hallucinations). Some experiments describe covering the match with an inverted glass jar, which contains both the flame and the balls so that they don't damage the chamber walls. [69][70], Pyotr Kapitsa proposed that ball lightning is a glow discharge driven by microwave radiation that is guided to the ball along lines of ionized air from lightning clouds where it is produced. The ball serves as a resonant microwave cavity, automatically adjusting its radius to the wavelength of the microwave radiation so that resonance is maintained. The idea of the superconductivity in a ball lightning was considered earlier. A free ball of ionized[further explanation needed] air can amplify the ambient field this much by its own conductivity. Scientific theories of ball lightning abound, with varying degrees of plausibility. In some observations, the ball lightning appeared to have an extremely high energy concentration[85] but this phenomenon hasn't been adequately verified. The ball of fire allegedly smashed the pews and many windows, and filled the church with a foul sulphurous odour and dark, thick smoke. One of the first known sightings dates from Ancient Greece. Expl., Vol. Using a high speed camera he was able to show that the bright balls were spinning plasma toroids. 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