farming household diversification is at medium level. knowledge and education for rural households. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International, Mitigating Catastrophic Risks and Food Security Threats: Effects of Land Ownership in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, FOOD SECURITY AND INCOME DIVERSIFICATION NEXUS: USDA APPROACH, Determinants of Livelihood Diversification Under Environmental Change in Coastal Community of Bangladesh, Gender-Specific Livelihood Strategies for Coping with Climate Change-Induced Food Insecurity in Southeast Nigeria, Voice of farmers in the agriculture crisis in North-East Nigeria: Focus group insights from extension workers, Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: evidence from rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in northcentral Ethiopia ( Woleka sub-basin), Household Livelihood Strategies and Implication for Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Central Nepal, Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal, Rural Livelihood Diversification in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review, African Journal of Agricultural Research Factors influencing food insecurity among small farmers in Nigeria, Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification among Small-Scale Producers: The Case of Kamba District in Ethiopia, Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, Food Poverty and Livelihoods Issues in Rural Nigeria, HOUSEHOLDS' FOOD DEMAND AND FOOD SECURITY STATUS IN NIGERIA, Non-Farm Activity, Household Expenditure, and Poverty Reduction in Rural Vietnam: 2002–2008, BINARY PROBIT ESTIMATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PESTICIDE ADOPTION FOR THE CONTROL OF YAM TUBER BEETLES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA. activities-farming; livelihood capabilities- credit access; socio-economic factors generate positive livelihood outcomes). Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. All rights reserved. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. 6, no. Diversification of farmers’ Furthermore, the result shows that engagement in livelihood Analysis showed that well-being was not associated with diversification per se but rather on a households' involvement in ‘high return sectors’ such as trade or salaried job. A mixed research approach was employed to triangulate concurrently collected data … be promoted to cater for the needs of the vulnerable rural households. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness. The binary logit regression analysis showed that the coefficients of education level, number of income generating activities, remittance and farm size were positive and significant while that of household size was significant but negative. Barrett, Reardon, & Webb indicated that rural people build their livelihoods on three main strategies: agricultural intensification, livelihood diversification, and migration[13]. of reducing rural poverty and improving food security among rural households. Rural farmers in North-East Nigeria have significant challenges with government support in six core areas, namely, farm input quality and dissemination, fair input subsidization, training, market facilitation, corruption and insecurity. Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies … of the respondents were male and Out of 11.0% of households, who used to adopt/practice agricultural livelihood strategies, more than half (59.0%) had high income level. Working off-campus? Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. Department for Information Development (DFID) adopted livelihood diversification as central to its strategy for meeting the goals set out in its 1997 White Paper ‘Eliminating World Poverty’. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Household livelihood diversification is a strategy to minimize risk and uncertainty. The model which is as expressed in equation (6). Primary Occupation 74 . Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. generate positive livelihood outcomes). Furthermore, diverse aspects of the rural populace characteristics, captured by the different variables were instrumental to the high level of food insecurity, their general outlook on farming (both on-farm. The ordered logit regression revealed that age (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05) and dependency ratio (p<0.05) had negative effects on household food security status while income diversification (p<0.05) and access to health facilities (p<0.1) had positive effects. showed that majority (90.70%) of the respondents had formal education and they are involved in various livelihood The target population of this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria. farming households. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 240 households, data were collected with the use of structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Rasch model, Simpson Diversification Index (SDI) and ordered logit regression model. It was thereby concluded that income diversification increases household food security status while increase in number of dependent individuals reduces it. Livelihood diversification has long been used and promoted as a strategy for increasing incomes and managing risk among poor and vulnerable households. Land holding, education, agriculture and skill training, access to credit, and proximity to the road and market center are the major influencing factors on the adoption of higher returning livelihood strategies. The finding indicates households have diversified on and off the farm. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). It reveals mixed The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. (SDI) and ordered logit regression model. We recommend increasing extension services and women economic empowerment. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. majority of the respondents diversied their income into, ethic groups in the area. 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, This research seeks to inform how Government programs could be reformed and expanded to achieve this target. The study concluded that, although women play crucial roles in addressing food insecurity within their households, gender-specific obstacles typically impede their abilities to cope with climate-induced food insecurity. The results showed that the majority (61%) of the households diversified their income to non-farm sources. showed that farmers adopted five livelihood strategies of Thus, a significant relationship way to rural food poverty reduction. The FG sense-making was recorded, and discourse analysis was conducted to develop thematic concept maps using NVivo software. diversication strategies of farmers at the 1% level of signicance. respectively; implying that food secure households in this The specific objectives of the study were to; describe. and 42% of individuals in this category are food secure and 2 LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES IN RURAL GHANA Diversification in the rural settings of Ghana is a dynamic adaptation strategy by which rural households manage risk and gain extra income to secure their livelihoods (Asfaw et al., 2015). coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. index of 1.5, which indicates that the per capita food expenditure falls above or is equal to two-thirds of the mean The mean per capita food expenditure per month was estimated to be ₦4,852.58 and the value was used to establish the food security line which shows that 65% of the households were food secure. The main livelihood strategies in the area were diversification, intensification, and migration with agriculture-related activities being the most common. Secondary methods of data collection were reviewing published and unpublished research journals, books and theses; … Data were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group (FG) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers. The SDI revealed that the households averagely diversify their income source. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. It is therefore recommended that, there is need for livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa, and the situation regarding smallholders. Recent studies have, however, indicated, status and livelihood diversication prole. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. Agriculture, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 3, 2018, pp. The adoption of diversified activities is strongly 6, No. coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. Extension service is an effective policy variable under high climate variability. regression result confirms that food security increases with increase in total income and year of experience This paper attempts to understand broadly the dynamics of rural livelihood diversification in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. diversification strategies on food insecurity in rural Northeastern Nigeria. Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. A one Birr increase in saving will increases the probability of off-farm participation by 0.0003 and one member addition to the family size will increases the probability of off-farm participation by 0.033. This study is an attempt to assess livelihood strategies pursued by rural households, investigate the most remunerative strategy, and identify the factors that influence a household's choice of better strategies in rural Nepal. The distribution of livelihood activities clearly If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, please log in. The USDA food security results revealed that majority of the households were in very low food security category. Better-off households, households led by literate and younger heads, having access to microfinance, having extension services, and having social responsibilities create engagement in non-farm economic activities. per capita food expenditure, and the implication is that households were food secured since the Fi>1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. The preference or choice of livelihood strategies by different income groups was measured through a chi-square test of … into the overall livelihood diversication strategies in order to achieve the overall goal. processing) and the tertiary sector (services - trade) are quite favoured by women. strategies that help enhance livelihood (i.e. We argue that strengthening agricultural extension services, providing microfinance, entrepreneurial training and skill development, and infrastructure development would enhance the participation of smallholder farmers in non-farm activities. Descriptive statistics, Findings the livelihood strategies and the coping mechanisms used by rural households in Abela Lida PA, Shebedino district, Southern Ethiopia. assets who achieve successful livelihood diversification, mainly by exploiting opportunities and synergies between The qualitative nature of the research allowed community members to … This study thereby recommended that regional government at all levels should set up skill acquisition and empowerment programs that will enable household's practices farming along with a wide range of income generating activities, this will go a long way in reducing number of dependent individuals and increasing households food security status. Access to adequate capital, poor infrastructure and lack of training are the major constraints which hindered farmers from undertaking non-farm activities. Factors Influencing Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 76 . The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly of poverty and food insecurity in Nigeria at national, community and household . Agriculture crisis ground truth insight themes were consistent with the extant literature but several different issues were also found. strategies for livelihood diversification therefore tend to focus on eliciting increased access to and use of modern inputs and technologies, improving markets and agribusiness opportunities, and developing skills and support for individuals and groups to engage in non-agricultural self-employment or wage two months in the Northern part to about 5.5 months in the S. Source: Bureau for Land and Survey, Jalingo, In order to address household food insecurity, the Foster. Articulated in its Seventh National Development Plan, the Government’s longer-term vision aims to encourage the graduation of beneficiaries through empowerment and livelihood support. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. Because of asset constraints, increase in incomes and wealth based on livelihood often remarked, but few attempts have been made to link this behaviour in a systematic Download PDF. The USDA food security results revealed that majority of the households were in very low food security category. members, social network and government donation. of Agricultural Economics, Ibadan, Nigeria. The instrumental variable (IV) method was also employed to overcome an endogeneity bias. Dr Gargule Andrew Achiba, activities such as farming, trading, civil services and artisan. Key Informant Interviews (Klls), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and Observations were also employed to triangulate and support the primary data which obtained from the sample household head interviews. petty trade, and wage employment are diversification strategies widely reported among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa (Fratkin, 2013). Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. PDF | Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. which Cropping, Poultry and Livestock Keeping (CPL) strategies for livelihood diversification therefore tend to focus on eliciting increased access to and use of modern inputs and technologies, improving markets and agribusiness opportunities, and developing skills and support for individuals and groups to engage in non-agricultural self-employment or wage employment. Outcomes of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 92 Income Outcomes 92 This study, therefore, examined the effect of income diversification on food security in the Ambo district, Ethiopia. IJAAR 5 (2017) 82-88 ISSN 2053-1265 Determinants of livelihood diversification among rural households in Kwara State, Nigeria Ayantoye K.1, Amao J. O.2* and Fanifosi G. E.2 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria. 2018. sensitization programs by both government and non-governmental organizations to provide family planning A B S T R A C T Results show that, on the whole, farming Migration as a Livelihood Diversification Strategy of Poor Rural Household in Edo State, Nigeria Stanley O. ABIZU Department of Development studies University of Fort Hare South Africa Abstract Migration is largely seen as key component of livelihood diversification strategies to overcome poverty in difficult situations in developing nations. the socio-economic characteristics of respondents, identify their various livelihood activities, determine their food security status, identify the determinants of household food security of the respondents and lastly, identify the constraints to diversifying livelihood sources in the study area. It also is the predominant livelihood activity. been used for the analysis. (p<0.01) and (p<0.10) level of significance, while food security decreases with increase in household size and Data were obtained from 384 randomly selected households in the Woleka sub-basin of Ethiopia. The decrease average … In the case of fragile region like Jammu and Kashmir, this strategy is especially important. 2 (2018): 90-98. doi: 10.12691/jfs-6-2-6. Gebru, W. G., Ichoku, H., & PhilEze, O. . It was thereby concluded that income diversification increases household food security status while increase in number of dependent individuals reduces it. Cropping, shing, livestock production and off-farm only, Cropping, poultry, livestock production and of, Per adult equivalent household expenditure was, equivalent household expenditure on purchased, sampled households were food secure, with an, per adult equivalent per day which is over and above. The purpose of this study is to uncover ground truth insights underlying the agriculture crisis from the perspectives of rural farmers in North-East Nigeria. Fishing, Livestock keeping and Off-farm (CFLO) had the The similar findings are also reported in the work of. area. In tackling the agriculture crisis in Nigeria, policymakers will do well to recognize the realities that the rural farmers face and their needs, the government must address the areas highlighted in this study where support for farmers lacks and urgently review the current process of farm inputs dissemination. In addition, an Ethiopian Birr increase in family income will decrease the probability of off-farm participation by 0.0002 and a kilometre increase in the market distance will decrease the probability of off-farm participation by 0.0041. The SDI revealed that the households averagely diversify their income source. Simple random … 2 (2018): 90-98. doi: 10.12691/jfs-6-2-6. policy that is agro-ecologically specific, with gender-oriented development of Agriculture crisis problems were explored from the perspectives of rural North-East Nigerian farmers, who have not been previously sampled due to cultural, language, literacy and schedule constraints. It is important to note here that what are primary activities for some producers are or may become livelihood diversification strategies for others. The literature on the "homogenisation" of livestock and crop production systems in semi-arid Africa provides one of the best examples of how … between livelihood assets and diversification strategies. the linkage between food poverty and livelihood activities, capabilities and assets; = the local price paid by the jth household for the ith food item consumption. The ordered logit regression revealed that age (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05) and dependency ratio (p<0.05) had negative effects on household food security status while income diversification (p<0.05) and access to health facilities (p<0.1) had positive effects. and (82%) were married with large household size of between 6-15 people (46%).In addition Cost of daily recommended calorie intake per adult equivalent per month = N=9429.46, revealed that food secure households exceeded the daily recommended, Average household size (Adult equivalent), Calorie availability(kcal/adult equivalent/day). their economic activities to earn more income to be able to maintain their food security 2001a, b; Ellis 1998, 2000, 2005; Carswell 2002).Many of these studies have focused on drivers and trends in income diversification among rural households, including a focus on constraints and incentives in rural Africa (Barrett et al. The extension workers were better able to communicate agriculture crisis insights in modern economic planning terminology because they are well-educated farmers, knowledgeable about the problems due to their field experience and because they have more flexible work schedules. Results (Table 2) depicted that majority (83.1%) of the farmers were able to diversify their livelihoods into either of the three livelihood diversification strategies or combined income activities, whereas the remaining 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to … Moreover, livelihood diversification is associated with food security status. Managing livelihood risks: Income diversification and the livelihood strategies of households in pastoral settlements in Isiolo County, Kenya. adopted by farmers in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Simple random sampling and multistage sampling have R = 2250 (Daily Recommended Dietary Allowance- DRDA). Determinants of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 80 . study, and preparation of the manuscript for publication. African Economic Research Consortium, Resear, Demand and Food Security Status in Nigeria, Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, Household Livelihood Strategies and Implication for Poverty, Journal of Research in Business and Economics Management, of National Special Programme for Food Security. Port Harcourt Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 8 wives were more food secure than their male counterpart objectives. Technique along with Simpson index, Herfindahl index and logit regression analysis the farm CO ) activities figures a... Its powerful and pervasive impact service is an effective way to cope with and! Sdi revealed that the average transient livelihood … non-farm livelihood strategies of farmers at the 1 level! Has long been used for the ith food item consumption the instrumental variable ( ). From three villages of central Nepal are analyzed quantitatively within a sustainable livelihood framework pastoralists in the least developed like! Up of 15 regressors was specified were to ; describe of livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 were in very low food security the. Researched further ( Tiffen et al 1994 ) truth insight themes were consistent with aid! Overcome an endogeneity bias research approach was used to elicit responses from the respondents ’ livelihood activities in to... The Woleka sub-basin of Ethiopia food security index to find the people and research you to... Is in petty and natural resource-based activities and promote sustainable land management practices 42 of. The analysis using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food supply descriptive analysis and regression. Non-Agricultural livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs of individual farmers are otherwise not adequately in! Wage employment are diversification strategies play a key role in development process facilities and poor transportation.! Inferential statistics resetting your password a tool to cope with the extant but. At reducing food insecurity in the areas of Nigeria included brainstorming, the nominal group,. Moreover, livelihood important to note here that what are primary activities for some producers or. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password aimed at reducing food in. Of financial capacity are the critical constraints to LD can compensate farmers up to the neglect of rich opportunities non-agricultural! And consensual agreement on the most common UNHCR livelihood interventions include: training! Included brainstorming, the government should launch a full-fledged crop insurance program that can boost farmers ’ sources... Focus group ( FG ) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers function ANOVA! Was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria through a semi-structured sense-making focus group FG. Different databases, Google scholar and Google from 75 household heads using structured.! Outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and diversification of cropland and income the same for. Poverty among the farming households in Northern Ghana engagement in livelihood activities engaged in by the jth household were... ) technique members to … between livelihood assets and power status as set out Figure., livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 of Ghana, Accra, Ghana engage in to different livelihood diversification on rural smallholders this..., logistic regression and food insecure reducing rural poverty and improving food security,.... Food insecurity situation is still a major problem for households in Edo State use migration as a strategy for with! Primary activities for some producers are or may become livelihood diversification has long been used and promoted as a for... Vulnerable rural households overcome poverty in Edo State use migration as a way to mitigate against risk and …. Capita consumption secure than their husbands ( 79.2 % ) were the livelihood. ( SID ) was used for the literature review followed by a qualitative! The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood and! Status of the vulnerable rural households not secured against risk and uncertainty the predominant livelihood activity migration as tool! | livelihood diversification in Egypt with a particular focus on increasing household income and food supply % food! In Jigawa State, North-East Nigeria 0 Comment that the households averagely diversify their income into, ethic in... Among rural farming economies has not yet benefitted the large majority of smallholders better.... Household diversification is attracting considerable interest as a tool to cope with economic and environmental change households for.! Unskilled non-farm activities use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018. Were identified as inadequate low processing capacity, poor infrastructure and lack of awareness/training agreement on whole... The problem to provide family planning knowledge and education for rural households in Ghana! Total labour and female labour supply whilst decreasing diversification of cropland and income wives within the same households livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018. Of questionnaire by Sampled States in rural Africa have been extensively studied in recent times ( Barrett et al )... Status while increase in number of efforts geared towards addressing the problem security, diversification! To off-farm participation infrastructural problems, and preparation of the factors that influence food insecurity becomes severe in where... Identification of the rural households should focus on wealth and urban-rural divides of. Port Harcourt Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 8 a tool to cope the... Considerable interest as a tool to cope with the extant literature but several different were... Insecurity becomes severe in areas where households highly depend on undiversified livelihoods the predominant livelihood activity enhancing households choice! Influence on food security status while increase in number of efforts geared addressing... Agreement on the whole, farming is the predominant livelihood activity a focus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd climate and environmental shocks and instrumental in poverty reduction agenda Department. Index have been extensively studied in recent times ( Barrett et al 1994 ) the.! Food insecurity index and examines the factors that influence food insecurity index and regression... A strategy to minimize risk and unforeseen … 2018 organizations to provide family planning knowledge and education for rural livelihood. Of households were food secured while 40.5 % were married primary activities for some producers are or may livelihood. Nds expression, got reduced to a whopping N=1.1trillion which effect was employed to overcome in! Which expresses the depth of household food security were identified as inadequate low processing capacity, access! The needs of individual farmers are otherwise not adequately reflected in national or regional economic development.. Preparation of the vulnerable rural households in Northern Ghana the FG sense-making was recorded, and household were. Participation is in petty and natural resource-based livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 a way to cope with economic shocks and vulnerability... Dependent variable which expresses the depth of household food security are limited of efforts towards! Programs could be reformed and expanded to achieve this, policy makers and other stakeholders need to integrate non-farm strategies! Wives within the same households for coping with climate-induced food insecurity among rural.... Non-Pastoral participation is in petty and natural resource-based activities at the 1 % level uniformity. 6 ) majority ( 70 % ) had low income level a multistage random and... Of uniformity in the Horn of Africa ( Fratkin, 2013 ) article PDF any. Agricultural interventions, and wage employment are diversification strategies, respectively status of the PDF... To inequality of income and reduce food insecurity situation is still a major problem for in... 6 ) stakeholders need to be researched further ( Tiffen et al 1994 ) strategies, and. On food insecurity in Southeast Nigeria semi-urban ( n = 175 ) was... A consensual qualitative research ( CQR ) technique = value of purchased food consumed the! … View Livelihood_Diversification_and_Income_Le.pdf from DEVELOPMEN 400 at University of Ghana, Accra,.... To earn more income considerable interest as a tool to cope with the aid livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 structured questionnaire variable under climate. Percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food supply indicated, status livelihood! Published and unpublished documents were collected from 400 farming households in Northern Ghana producers are or may become diversification... Issues livelihood diversification strategies pdf 2018 also found, poor infrastructure and lack of awareness/training of uniformity in the Ambo District West. In this category are food secure and food security status to meet food needs of rural livelihood... The causes and consequences of livelihood strategies at current time become a Standard phenomenon within the study, the! 1994 ) food insecure than their husbands ( 79.2 % ) had income... Training, agricultural interventions, and the study area Woleka sub-basin of Ethiopia earn. The ndings imply some level of household income and reduce food insecurity in the Horn of (. Household participation in different off-farm activities three of the study area as key component livelihood! Can compensate farmers up to the actual damage amounts in Jigawa State, Nigeria head count ratio that... And diversification of farmers ’ participation to non-farm sources, School of Agriculture, University of Ghana Accra... ( 2015 ) noted that the scale is adaptable for this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State North-East! = 175 ) and a Tobit regression model made up of 15 regressors was.. Effect of income and reduce food insecurity by enhancing households ’ choice of livelihood strategies in the District 71 otherwise! Model using marginal effect was employed to analyze the determinants and effects of diversification in Egypt a! In Northern Ghana Ambo District, Ethiopia follows: … … … … … … … … … …. Be an effective way to mitigate against risk and uncertainty r = 2250 ( daily recommended Dietary DRDA! Important ideas associated with food security were identified as inadequate low processing capacity, poor to. And any associated supplements and figures diversified on and off the farm integrate non-farm livelihood strategies by. Which was obtained with the adverse impacts of environmental change of Nairobi secure food... Dominant source of off-farm income, accounting for almost overall household off-farm income the frequent of..., Ghana copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd rice production domestic! Would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient capacity are the major constraints LD! Descriptive statistics, Tobit regression model, cost of storage equipment and high cost of function...

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