History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. It must have served as the main seaport of the Indus people. The vast mounds at Harappa were first reported by Masson in 1826 and visited by Cunningham in 1853 and 1873. The potters also worked in this part. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. The Mohenjodaro, the length of the Great Bath was 12 mtrs, breadth was 7mtrs and depth was 2.5 mtrs. The various occupations in which people were engaged spanned a wide range. 1. The common features of all the Indus valley civilizations are as follows: 1. Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Answers QUESTIONS Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs)& Answers 1 Mohenjodaro is also called as : A mound of the Great B mount of the Survivors C mount of the Living D mount of the Dead Answer: mount of the Dead 2 Identify the site where the Great… The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. Plants, trees and pipal leaves are found on pottery. Clay figures of the Mother Goddess as the symbol of fertility have been found- these were worshipped by the people. Situated in Gujarat it is the latest Indus city discovered in India and also one of the largest sites of the civilization. Main types of seals are the square type with a carved animal and inscription and rectangular type with inscription only. In the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs area. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. Besides sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo and elephant was certainly domesticated. Kalibangan was located on a different river from the other major Indus Valley Civilization cities, and its river suffered a fate that led to the end of the city. Presence of cooking area, water reservoir in houses. The Harappan pottery includes goblets, dishes, basins, flasks, narrow necked vases, cylindrical bottles, tumblers, corn measures, spouted vases and a special type of dish on a stand which was a offering stand or incense burner. Important Sites • In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), The decline of Harappan culture is difficult to explain. There are many unsolved problems relating to the Indus Valley Civilization. Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. Chanhudaro Suktagendor Banawali In the last phase of Mohenjodaro, men and women and children were massacred in the streets and houses. A second figure of comparable size also comes from Mohenjodaro. Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago. Some of the evidence of the devastation by floods has been found at Mohenjodaro and Lothal but there is no such evidence in respect of other sites like Kalibangan. Terracotta seals found at Mehargarh were the earliest precursors of the Harappan seals. Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. Important Sites of Indus Valley Civilization. Also known as the Harappan civilization, it dates back to 2500 years ago. The main sites like Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira are featured below with their respective specialities. Another remarkable contribution of the Harappan people was the cultivation of cotton. Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). This is contrary to the currently held view that all alphabetic writing descended from Phoenician in the late second millennium BC. • Indus Valley Civilization was located on the banks of the river Indus, particularly at the bends that provided water, easy means of transportation of produce and other goods and also some protection by way of natural barriers of the river. A seated figure of a male god carved on a small stone seal was also found. (c) Kalibangan was located on the bank of river Ghaggar. There is also present an oblong multipillared assembly hall and a big rectangular building which must have served administrative purposes. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization: So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION SITES So far nearly 1000 sites of nearly, mature and late phases of the Indus Civilization are known in the sub-continent. Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization in northern Rajasthan state. The Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and uniformly sturdy and well baked. To them also belong the credits for producing some of the earliest specimens of pottery. Historians are of the view that the decline of the Indus Civilization was not the result of a single event; it was a slow decline and a result of combination of factors. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. Lothal in Ahmedabad, near river Sabarmati 7. Numerous articles used as weights have been discovered. The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro is the most important public place measuring 39 feet (length) x23 feet (breadth) x8 feet (depth). Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age Civilization that flourished between 2500-1750 BC in the north western parts of India and present-day Pakistan.. Within the lower town there are some barrack like groups of single -roomed tenements at Mohenjodaro. Spinning and weaving of cotton and wool, pottery making chiefly red clay with geometric designs painted in black, bead making from clay, stone, paste, shell and ivory, seal making, terracotta manufacture and brick laying. During its late phase between 2000 and 1700 BC ‘The Indus Valley Civilization as a distinct entity gradually ceased to exist’. 28. It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. He also finds close connection between the Brahmi and the Indus script. Indus Valley Civilization is the one of the oldest ancient civilizations of the world.Indus River Valley Civilization was discovered by the archaeologists in the 1920s. The seal immediately brings to our mind the traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva. Kalibangan, Rajasthan, Ancient Cities of Indus Valley Civilization. In the beginning, it was called “The Indus Valley Civilization”, due to the discovery of more and more sited far away from the Indus valley this civilization was later named “Indus Civilization”. Lanes were 1.8 mts wide and the roads were 3.6, 5.4 and 7.2 mts wide. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) It is located in the banks of the river Ravi; It was the first site to be excavated among all the Indus sites. See all quizzes › Go to topic › Question 2 How many symbols were used in Indus Valley writing? Later, during 1961-69, excavation were carried out by … The great granary found here is largest building measuring 150 feet (length) x 50 feet (breadth). The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the later civilization. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. • Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro,Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali. But it had the most efficient civic administration and effective town planning system. Majority of these sculptures are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster. Presence of residential and non-residential buildings. Indus Valley Civilization GK / General Studies Test with multiple choice questions (MCQs) for UPSC, Civil Services, SSC, Banking, UPPSC, RPSC, KPSC, KAS, … ; It flourished in the Bronze Age (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) along the Indus River (hence called Indus Valley Civilization) and … Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. It was built during the rule of Marathas. Harappa in western Punjab, near river Ravi 2. The plain pottery is more common than the painted ware. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Mohenjodaro in Sindh, near river Indus 3. 29. Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. Kalibangan flourished for at least 450-600 years. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. He was doing some research in ancient Indian texts and was surprised by the character of ruins in that area. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. The merchant class contributed to the general prosperity and trade contacts seem to have been established with the Sumerian and Mesopotamian civilization of those times. He also refers to the presence of few fish on the ground. A hunting scene showing two antelopes with the hunter is noticed on a pot shreds from the cemetery H.A jar found at Lothal depicts a scene in which two birds are seen perched on a tree each holding a fish in its beak. The best specimen among the stone sculptures of Mohanjodaro is the steatite image of a bearded man wearing an ornamented robe. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. 3. Surkotada is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. According to Rajaram the script is both pictorial and alphabetic; alphabets are favoured to the pictures in the later stages. In the field of religions many important features of Harappan religion were adopted in later Hinduism. The Harappan civilization contributed towards the advancement of Mathematics. Presence of a fortified citadel in almost all urban centres. The numerical and decimal system was evolved here which made remarkable contributions towards Vedic mathematics. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. Archaeologists discovered two platforms with fire altar suggesting the practice of cult of sacrifice. He sought help from Sir John Marshall of the Archaeological Survey of India. Another well-known building was the Great Bath. 5. Brooke further notes that the developmen… Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. The plain ware is usually of red clay with or without a fine red slip. Ans. A trip to Mohenjo daro museum. Mortimer Wheeler pointed out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans. Kalibangan is a part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in present Hanumangarh district. It was only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. A well laid drainage system kept the cities clean. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as galzed, polychrome, incised perforated and knobbed. 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