Following Barton (2008, p6) I believe, that, like disability, the problems caused by inequalities such as exclusion, and the need for an inclusive society and the education system, are public issues “in which discriminatory social structures, social relationships, and social processes need … Goal 4: Quality education. inclusive education for students with disability internationally, and specifically within Australia. Sadly, they end up as school dropouts, given the problems they encounter. Disability is the single most serious barrier to … The barriers she encountered were attitudinal: the school authorities just could not understand how a child would get through school without being able to write. This systemic entrenchment in welfare has resulted in the preservation of segregated services even within the flagship programme for the Education For All Campaign, the SSA. The World Bank supports social sustainability and inclusion by fostering inclusive and resilient societies where citizens have voice and governments respond. Many of those classrooms are what’s known as inclusive (or inclusion) classrooms. Robbed of their right to learn, children with disabilities are often denied the chance to take part in their communities, the workforce and the decisions that most affect them. Take a look. For example, by contributing to a group discussion, students will build their communication and critical-thinking skills. Sajan and others like him will benefit from early intervention and plenty of encouragement. These manuals are designed to help the various people who are involved in the emerging Inclusive Education system in our country. Inclusive education values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom. In Sajan’s case, the expectation to sit for a longer duration needs to be modified as he is not neurologically ready. Use electronic portfolio, • involve parents of children with disability. What appears to be a major in hurdle in the path to finding the proper method for inclusion is the fact that very few major policy making groups have addressed the issue in decades. Every goal in the 2030 Agenda requires education to empower people with the knowledge, skills and values to live in dignity, build their lives and contribute to their societies. Respectful dialogue through a participatory engagement that helps to develop sensitised personnel, differentiated instructional strategies, modes of alternative communication, active involvement of parents and the community and an administration committed to the advancement of inclusive education is critical. Sajan is a reluctant learner who struggles to transition to school every day. Ensuring that each individual has an equal opportunity for educational progress remains a challenge worldwide. A KPMG evaluation report in 2016, on the achieve- ments of the RTE six years following the enactment, highlights the challenges in the debate over quality of learning. She achieved her development milestones (with a two- year delay) with intensive physical and speech therapies. Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. This document provides guidance on what Governments can do to create inclusive education systems. As the UNCRPD emphasises, the problem of disability lies not in the person but in the ’barriers’ imposed by the environment. • explain the main actors and processes underpinning strategic planning today. Sign up for a new Teachers of India account. Please enter your TOI password associated with your account. An analysis and policy discussion is included of this evidence in regard to three key research questions: 1. Following the enactment of the RTE, Fatima was eligible to join any school in her neighbourhood. of Social Work, Bharathidasan University, Trichy) Abstract: Inclusive education refers to an academic system that allows special education students to become included in mainstream classes alongside their peers. It reflects a shift in focus from a welfare approach to a rights-based approach and makes it a legal obligation for the State to ensure that a child is in a state-recognised school. inclusive education on the ground. Positive Psychology, Second Edition, Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, 2011.17 The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016, The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 Anuradha, until recently, worked in Hong Kong as an Early Interventionist with children with special needs in the 0-6 age group, under the auspices of an early education centre sub-vented by the Hong Kong Government program serving the non-Chinese-speaking population. Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society. Overcoming this requires educational reform and progressive leadership that encourages learning and participation for all. Fatima had been misdiagnosed with mental retardation when she was 5. All these are now listed as interventions in the Act in Sections 17 and 18 under the ‘duties of educational institutions’ and ‘specific measures to promote inclusive education’. The story of Fatima, from Chennai, as narrated by her mother, a housewife from a coastal town in southern Tamil Nadu, illustrates the challenges in the implementation of the RTE Act. • Examples of successful experiences in different regions of the world in which parents and social organizations have acted in support of inclusive education. Similar statistics on learning outcomes in numeracy point out that pedagogy and teacher-student interactions that encourage learning through understanding and application are needed. A Legal History of Inclusion. 1 This Unit is a slightly shortened and adapted version of two documents: IIEP. Worryingly, education has thus far been a very low priority in humanitarian aid to countries in conflict — and less than 3% of global humanitarian assistance was allocated to education in 2016. For the first time, children with autism, specific learning disability and speech and language disability qualify for Inclusive Education. However, Disability Rights activists draw attention to the sobering reality that, despite enrolment, children with a disability are invisible in the classroom. Disability rights activists are concerned that children with high support needs are enrolled in school, but end up in home-based programs under the SSA. In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. Yet, children with disabilities are often overlooked in policymaking, limiting their access to education and their ability to participate in social, economic and political life. Explain to students how being inclusive can benefit the whole class. Inclusive education is a continuous process of educational transformation, and a clear set of equity indicators – such as from UNESCO (2017) – can support inclusive education implementation. The fact that the new law is UNCRPD-compliant is transformative in its philosophical underpinnings and shifts the focus from social welfare to human rights. The most progressive feature of the RPWD Act is the ‘Universal Design’ concept promoted by the UNCRPD. Measuring the success of inclusive education should go beyond merely Inclusive Education in India From Concept to Reality, Inclusive Education: Challenges in Building a Coherent Understanding. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Business can make long-term strategic investments in education that will lead to a larger, more talented pool of future employees. How is Australia sitting internationally in relation to the extent students with Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive. Suleymanov, F. (2015). Early detection is also a recognised part of the school system, a progressive step considering that childhood disabilities go undetected in the early years. Article 21-A of the Constitution guarantees education as a fundamental right and specifies that the state shall provide free and compulsory education for all children in the 6-14 years age group, although it was not until 2009 that the RTE Act was passed by Parliament. The World Bank’s work on Social Sustainability and Inclusion has a new strategic direction that focuses on creating opportunities for all people and addressing deep rooted systemic inequalities.. Children with disabilities face multiple forms of discrimination which leads to their exclusion from society and school. Since then, my idea of Inclusive Education has become aligned with the philosophy of the Index, which is: all students and staff have to be valued, and all efforts made to increase their participation and collaboration in school communities. Kanika’s story illustrates the role a school can play in the inclusion of a child with benchmark disability with high support needs. Then and Now The inclusion of the education of children with disability in the ‘Education for All’ goals was followed by the 86th Amendment to the Indian Constitution in 2002. ‘We slot people at a particular level based on our understanding of the person’s impairment. Are teachers today prepared in the basic practices of curriculum adaptation, collaborative skills and Universal Design to build a new inclusive school culture? References:1 Booth, T and Ainscow, M. Index for Inclusion: Developing learning and partici-pation in schools (2002) Curricular Adaptations for Children with Special Needs, Confluence, February 2016, Vol 18, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Duncan, R. Universal Design Gohain, Manash Pratim, ‘NCERT Books to make classroom inclusive’, The Times of India, April 22, 2017 Ikeda, D. http://www.ikedaquotes.org6 Including Children with Special Needs, Primary Stage, NCERT, 2014 Julka, A, Index for Developing Inclusive Schools, NCERT KPMG, Assessing the Impact of the Right to Education Act, March 2016 Learning Indicators and Learning Outcomes at the Elementary Stage, NCERT 2014. Mohamed Imranullah S. ‘Advantages and disadvantages of RTE Act’, The Hindu, 21 May 2013 Naidu, A, Collaboration in the Era of Inclusion, Chapter on Reform, Inclusion and Teacher Education, Ed. But Inclusive education/mainstreaming has been promoted on two bases: the rights of children to be included in mainstream education and the proposition that inclusive education is … 2009. The Consultative Forum is a statutory committee established under EPSEN (2004) for the purpose of assisting and advising the Council on matters relating to its functions. Reading progress was comparable in both settings. She had an impressive fund of general knowledge, but with her dysgraphia, writing was near-impossible. His mother’s conversation with his teacher showed that he is unable to sit for more than five minutes in class and is a social isolate, making him vulnerable to bullying. During the same decade, the Indian Government also ratified UNCRPD-2007. Simply put, both students with and without disabilities learn more. This goes against the spirit of the RTE Act. But with retention and school dropout becoming serious issues, will this progressive vision translate into good practices in schools? By contrast, inclusion is about the child's right to participate and the school's duty to accept the child. In this article, we will review the sections relating to Inclusive Education in these legislative initiatives, as well as reflect on the implications for the quality of learning. Both Kids Together and the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilitie… In India, the 86th Constitutional Amendment guarantees education as a fundamental right to all and this includes the child with a disability. Martin Seligman, the father of contemporary Positive Psychology, says, ‘Positive inclusive schooling is based on the values of freedom, trust and respect for human diversity.’ Tony Booth, author of Index for Inclusion, also emphasises the role of values in the democratic and participatory practice of Inclusion, which recognises teachers and learners equally. • The Norms and Standards of the RTE make barrier-free access to class material, classrooms and buildings mandatory. The three cases studies presented in the essay demonstrate that children fall through the cracks of a fragmented system, despite laws recognising disability as an element of human diversity. The idea of the child with disability going to mainstream schools, along with other children marginalised by poverty, gender and cultural factors, was gaining momentum. It means real learning opportunities for groups who have traditionally been excluded – not only children with disabilities, but speakers of minority languages too. Since 2000, there has been enormous progress in achieving the target of universal primary education. He might require a teaching assistant’s supervision to help him, for example, make friends or complete a puzzle in time. Benefits for students. Open communication and coordinated planning between general education teachers and special education staff are essential for inclusion to work. Five-year-old Odai, who has a speech disorder, attends a UNICEF-supported awareness session in Jordan on the rights of children with disabilities. According to the Annual Status of Education report for 2014, 50 per cent of Class 5 students and 25 per cent of Class 8 students are unable to read a Grade 2 reader. For more detailed guidance on programming for inclusive education, please … Fatima had encountered traditional social barriers right at the doorstep. When kids are found eligible for special education services, it’s common for their families to worry that they’ll be placed in a different classroom than other kids their age.But most kids who are eligible for special education spend the majority of their time in general education classrooms. To close the education gap for children with disabilities, UNICEF supports government efforts to foster and monitor inclusive education systems. The teacher gives him daily homework to improve his writing and numeracy skills to enable him to meet the achievements standards of his class. Under the new law, Fatima has been enrolled at a school about a kilometre away from her home. Sajan loves to draw, play with building blocks, creating amazing building designs and play on the climbing frame and slide. This report draws on national studies to examine why millions of children continue to be denied the fundamental right to primary education. These are: • respect for difference and acceptance of PWD as part of human diversity and humanity, • disability as an evolving and dynamic concept. Strengthening education systems and innovation. She trained as a special educator at Vidya Sagar, Chennai, 20 years ago and was introduced to the trans-disciplinary approach there. Enter your Email Address here to receive a link to change your password. Promoting attitudes of accepting realities and recognising differences for individual needs are vital areas of inclusive education. To improve his participation in class, she has to eliminate the environmental, attitudinal and communicational factors that isolate and exclude and enhance those that give rise to hope and optimism. Sajan can grow up in a joyful learning environment if the same teaching-learning methods are accessible to him and all the other students in the class. Section 21 of the RTE Act invests the mandatory School Management Committee with the responsibility to create a school development plan. The research basis for inclusive education. Much work was done by this and The ‘right to education’ implies diversity in education. Her practice has evolved to reflect this as she constantly strives to weave together therapy, education, and alternative communication into a fun-filled process of learning for her students. DFID will work for inclusive growth through a number of programmes and continues to spend heavily on health and education, which have a major impact on poor people’s ability to take part in growth opportunities. Another positive feature of the RTE Act is its emphasis on ‘Access to Quality Education’. The guiding principles of the Act also go beyond enrolment to provision of quality of learning. The passage of the RPWD Act, 2016 to replace the PWD Act was a special moment in the history of the disability rights movement. Unlike the PWD Act, 1995, the RPWD Act, 2009 provides for Inclusive Education, which it defines as ‘a system of education wherein students with and without disability learn together and the system of teaching and learning is suitably adapted to meet the learning needs of different types of students with disability.’ It also elaborates the basic requirements and the means of implementation. 47.1% of students with disabilities in general education made progress in math, compared to 34% in self-contained classes. ‘Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design’ (Mace, 1988). ‘Access to Quality Education’ implies the creation of environments that enable a child to evolve and grow to full potential. “To strive to give something back to society in a spirit of gratitude is the proper way for human beings to live.” - Japanese Buddhist philosopher Daisaku Ikeda. Sustainable Development Goal 4 on Education and the Education 2030 Framework for Action emphasize inclusion and equity as laying the foundations for quality education.. Fatima secured admission in her neighbourhood school, but could she progress from the special unit to the regular classroom? • Next, we will look at the RPWD Act, its alignment with the UNCRPD and new definitions of disability that incorporate environmental barriers. Lead 5 Ways Leadership Can Change the Conversation Around Diversity and Inclusion Oftentimes leaders think that the risk is too great to get involved in the discussion of diversity and inclusion. Mike Oliver, in a recent interview for the forthcoming book, Doing inclusive education research (Allan and Slee, Rotterdam: Sense), lamented the fact that the social model had remained a source of Our work focuses on four key areas: How one boy overcame stigma and demonstrated the power of inclusive education. Even in 2001, when the Constitution was amended to guarantee the fundamental right to education for all, the education of children with disabilities was perceived as a subject of state welfare. The subsequent enactment of two progressive legislative initiatives - the Right to Education Act and The Rights of Persons with Disability Act - reflects a policy shift from a welfare-based approach to one that emphasises human rights. They face persistent barriers to education stemming from discrimination, stigma and the routine failure of decision makers to incorporate disability in school services. Both the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE Act), 2009 and the Rights of Persons With Disabilities Act (RPWD Act), 2016, make provisions for Inclusive Education. Collaboration is the cornerstone of Inclusive Education. Like all children, they need quality education to develop their skills and realize their full potential. 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