Its conduit has a length, from the intake to the City, of •61,710½ paces; •54,247½ paces of underground conduit; •7,463 paces on structures above ground, of which, at some distance from the City, in several places where it crosses valleys, there are •463 paces on arches; nearer the City, beginning at the seventh milestone, •528 paces on substructures, and the remaining •6,472 paces on arches. However, Frontinus criticises the practice of mixing supplies from different sources, and one of his first decisions was to separate the waters from each system. The two Anios are less limpid, for they are drawn from a river, and are often muddy even in good weather, because the Anio, although flowing from a lake whose waters are very pure, is nevertheless made turbid by carrying away portions of its loose crumbling banks, before it enters the conduits — a pollution to which it is subject not only in the rain-storms of winter and spring, but also in the showers of summer, at which time of year a more refreshing purity of the water is demanded. and, of those on arches, the parts that cross rivers suffer most from the effects of age or of violent storms. 43 47 The numbers, as they have come down to us in the Montecassino manuscript exhibit a great many errors, and it would be impossible to affirm what are errors, and what is the truth. 60 The water-men are the men who receive the water from the State and in turn furnish it to the consumers. The 95‑pipe: 10 digits plus ½ plus 5⁄12 plus 1⁄24 plus 9⁄288 in diameter; 34 digits plus ½ plus 1⁄24 in circumference; it has a capacity of 77 quinariae plus 4⁄12 plus 1⁄24 plus 2⁄288; is not in use. 60 Praenomen not in C but attested by CIL VI.2222, VIII.7066, IX.6083.78. With the water-men it had a diameter of 16 digits, having a capacity of 163 quinariae plus ½ plus 5⁄12, which is the measure of two 100‑pipes. In some of the reservoirs, though their ajutages were stamped in conformity with their lawful admeasurements, pipes of a greater diameter [than the ajutages] were at once attached to them. There they again emerge. The intake of Tepula is at the tenth milestone on the Latin Way, near a cross-road, two miles to the right as you proceed from Rome The size and character of the ajutage, therefore, were important factors in the measurement of the water discharged. The water comes from two very large and beautiful springs, the Caerulean,45 so designated from its appearance, and the Curtian. 79 and is distributed to high-lying mains throughout the City. 9 Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries Ser. Tiberius Claudius appears to have been the first man to appoint such a deputy after he introduced Claudia and New Anio. See plan facing p363. With the water-men it had a diameter of 12 digits; having a capacity of 92 quinariae. It is customary, however, in the district across the Tiber, in an emergency, whenever the bridges39 are undergoing repairs and the water supply is cut off from this side of the river, to draw from Alsietina to maintain the flow of the public fountains. By this means, we shall make it possible that the quantity of water, which has been regained, as we have said, may be distributed to new fountains and may be used for new grants from the sovereign. 13 55 Of these there were furnished in the name of Caesar 116 quinariae, to private parties 543 quinariae, for public uses 439114 quinariae, — namely, to four camps 42½ quinariae, to fifteen public structures 41 quinariae, to twelve ornamental fountains 104 quinariae, to one hundred and thirteen water-basins 256 quinariae.115. ... tum ad salubritatem atque etiam securitatem urbis pertinens, administratum per principes semper civitatis nostrae viros, primum ac potissimum existimo, sicut in ceteris negotiis institueram, nosse quod suscepi. Under the Republic, these special offices had been of a temporary nature; now Agrippa, and certain others following him, held this office for life.  p463 be adjacent to the City, or in the gardens, properties, or estates of those owners or proprietors to whom the water is now or in future shall be given or granted, he shall be condemned to pay a fine of 100,000 sestertii169 to the Roman people; and in addition, whoever shall maliciously do any of these things shall be condemned to repair, restore, re-establish, reconstruct, replace what he has damaged, and quickly demolish what he has built — all in good faith and in such manner [as the commissioners may determine]. With the recovery of Frontinus' manuscript from the library at Monte Cassino in 1425, effected by the tireless humanist Poggio Bracciolini, details of the construction and maintenance of the Roman aqueduct system became available once more, just as Renaissance Rome began to revive and require a dependable source of pure water.[1]. Frontinus ably discharged several important administrative duties for Nerva and Trajan. Frontinus had been appointed Water Commissioner by the emperor Nerva in AD 96. The English rendering does not reproduce the word play in venas Venocis. Lowest of all is Alsietina, which supplies the ward across the Tiber and the very lowest districts. They are all now supplied by several aqueducts, above all, by Marcia, which has been rebuilt on a substantial structure and carried from Spes Vetus to the Aventine. 88 camps 69 quinariae, to 115 Poleni endeavoured to reconcile these figures, so as to make them mathematically correct. Now the digit, by common understanding, is 1⁄16 part of a foot;60 the inch 1⁄12 part. Silting of the channels was another common problem, especially those aqueducts that drew water directly from rivers, such as Anio Novus, and numerous settling tanks (each one being known as a castellum) were built along their lengths. Thus those which in cross-section, that is, in circular orifice, have 25 square digits, are called 25‑pipes. In consequence certain ones deliver water on higher ground, while others cannot rise to the loftier points; for the hills have gradually grown higher with rubbish in consequence of frequent conflagrations. The right to granted water does not pass either to the heirs, or to the buyer, or to any new proprietor of the land. Agrippa was consul for the third time in 27 B.C. By this provision, one reaps the advantage of being able to have the works before one's eyes, so to speak, at a moment's notice, and to consider them as though standing by their side. 12 92 In the second class, we have an ascending series of pipes each of which increases beyond the next smaller by a diameter of ¼ inch. A novus homo, he was consul three times. arrive at an aggregate gain of 27 quinariae in case of the 100‑pipe, and of 8511⁄12, practically 86, quinariae in case of the 120‑pipe. 45 Now whenever a stamped ajutage is larger than its legitimate measure it reveals designing dishonesty on the part of the deputy who stamped it; but when it is not even stamped, it clearly reveals the fault of all, especially of the grantee, also of the overseer.  p439 deputy must call in the levellers and provide that the calix155 is stamped as conforming to the deeded quantity, and must study the size of the ajutages we have enumerated above,156 as well as have knowledge of their location,157 lest it rest with the caprice of the levellers to approve a calix of sometimes greater, or sometimes smaller, interior area,158 according as they interest themselves in the parties. In the records Appia is credited with 841 quinariae.86 Among the bridges crossing the Anio, Ponte Lupo near Gallicano served as transit for four waters, Marcia, Anio The lower one will take in more; the higher one will suck in less, because the current of water is drawn in by the lower one. The 65‑pipe: 9 digits plus 1⁄12 plus 3⁄288 in diameter; 28 digits plus ½ plus 1⁄12 in circumference; it has a capacity of 52 quinariae plus ½ plus 3⁄12 plus 1⁄24 plus 8⁄288; is not in use. 117b This isn't true; at best, O. F. Robinson, in Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration (Routledge, New York, 1992), p158, speaks of such an amalgamation of the offices of the grain distribution and water commissioner as being merely a possibility, and first attested only under Commodus or Septimius Severus, i.e., 80 to 100 years after Frontinus. 59 For example the 6‑pipe is six quarters in diameter, a 7‑pipe seven quarters, and so on by a uniform increase up to a 20‑pipe.  p445 parties, it will not be foreign to the subject to touch upon certain practices, by way of illustration, whereby we have caught these most wholesome ordinances in the very act of being defeated. 110 Both of these large gangs, which regularly were diverted by exercise of favouritism, or by negligence of their foremen, to employment on private work, I resolved to bring back to some discipline and to the service of the State, by writing down the day before what each gang was going to do, and by putting in the records what it had done each day. 112 Bailly's French translation, although based on a slightly different reading, seems to me in one way more accurate: In putting an end to this abuse, an amount of [water] was recovered that I could estimate based on that of the lead brought in by the removal of that kind of pipes. 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